Browse Free Fully Funded Scholarships, Internships, Short Courses, and Research Jobs

Find available fellowships, scholarships, and programs posted at PSM Academy. We Provide all scholarship news to help students around the world to let them know about the currently active programs.

PSM share informative content regarding international scholarships, international fellowships, internships, and other education-related programs Free of Cost to help students so they can apply for these scholarships.

Find and compare scholarships for college students, college grants, fellowships, federal financial aid, and other forms of student funding to cover expenses for international Bachelors, Masters, and PhDs worldwide.

We help students and researchers find the best career options and study advice to reach their academic and professional goals.

Apply for a university scholarship in a degree subject that interests you.

Welcome to Download your Academic Softwares at PSM Academy

We are pleased to announce that the safe free versions of the latest software, freeware, shareware, and demo programs are available for download on our customer portal at PSM Academy. We have added a number of great new software that add significant new capabilities to the users.

The softwares listed on the web page are available to download for free in order to assist students with essential academic, research, business, and other tasks.

Automatically access and easily download the software using a web browser.
Search and filter to obtain featured software or browse by operating system, title, vendor, category, or keyword.

Most software programs are patched versions obtained from other platforms to help students.

Consider Supporting the PSM Community this Giving Tuesday

#GivingTuesday is today!

On this global day of giving, consider supporting the #psm community via a gift to the PSM Fund. Donations help PSM members participate in professional development opportunities and support the publications.

PSM is serving young researchers and the scientific community for the last 6 years.
To keep our doors open, serve researchers in need, and offer publication support in most of the journals, our team needs to raise funds.
If you make a gift, that will help us to serve researchers from developing countries!
With the support of community members like you, PSM can continue its services.
You may submit your donations by any of the following means:

  1. By submitting funds directly to our bank.
    Account bearer name: Muhammad Naeem Iqbal
    IBAN No: PK92 HABB 0014747900584001
    Bank Name: Habib Bank Limited, Noorkot Branch, Narowal, Pakistan
  2. You can also use the Money Gram service to send money to Muhammad Naeem Iqbal.
    National ID: 3450202719353
    Country: Pakistan

PSM Chair & Editor

Announcing the launch of PSM Webinar Series

We are excited to announce our new series of webinars with the goal to offer undergraduate and graduate students an insight into the breadth of career opportunities available both with and in science. Our speakers will discuss their career path and their advice to the students wishing to pursue a future in their field.

The first webinar of the series is scheduled for December 5th, 2020, at 7 pm UTC+05:00, and our speaker will be Dr. Muhammad Naeem Iqbal, discussing his career in academia. IQBAL is the chair of our Board of Directors and is Editor-in-Chief at PSM.

These webinars will contribute to enhance the knowledge of the participants and will secure the opportunity to learn the latest trends and opportunities in the scientific research.

The webinar will be accompanied by a live Q&A where viewers can ask questions to the speaker. If you are unable to attend or have questions ahead of time, please feel free to submit them by commenting below or by emailing

Webinars will be recorded and archived on our website.

If there are any careers you would like to see featured, or would like to speak at a future webinar, please reach out to

Make sure to follow us on social media and/or subscribe to our Webinar newsletter below to stay up to date!

Publish in an open-access journal

Read about our open access policies, article processing charges, and funding. Search PSM journals to find the right home for your open-access research.

Choose your open access route

You can publish open access in any of our journals through our gold, and platinum routes.

Gold open access

Gold OA makes the final version of an article freely and permanently accessible for everyone, immediately after publication. Gold OA articles can be published either in fully OA journals (where all the content is published OA) or hybrid journals (a subscription-based journal that offers an OA option which authors can choose if they wish). The primary advantage of Gold OA is that your published work is available immediately without restrictions. With gold OA, you can freely share your article, and anyone (with an internet connection) can access your work for free. PSM is currently publishing fully open access journals.

Publish in fully open access journal

All articles published in our fully open access journals are published gold OA. Your article will undergo full peer review and you will be invoiced for the article processing charge (APC).

Fully open access journals

PSM Biological Research

PSM Veterinary Research

PSM Microbiology

PSM’s Article Processing Charges (APC)

PSM publishes all its journals in full open access, meaning unlimited use and reuse of articles, in addition to giving credit to the authors. All our articles are published under a Creative Commons (CC BY NY) license.

Authors pay a one-time Article Processing Charge (APC) to cover the costs of peer review administration and management, professional production of articles in PDF and other formats, and dissemination of published papers in various venues, in addition to other publishing functions. Our journals do not have submission fees. If any manuscript is rejected during the peer review process, then the authors have not to pay any charge. Some items (Editorials, Corrections, Addendums, Retractions, Comments, etc.) are published free of charge.

Article processing charge (APC) waiver policy

PSM is committed to making open access accessible and inclusive to all and supports publication of research from low- or middle-income countries. This is why we invest in a waiver programme that allows authors from these countries to publish their work in our fully open access titles with a discount. PSM offers a generous waiver scheme for qualifying authors. Corresponding authors from low-income countries (as classified by the World Bank) are eligible to apply for 50% waiver on article processing charges (APCs). Corresponding authors from lower middle-income countries are eligible to apply for a 25% discount on APCs. PSM members will receive a receive a 15% discount on APCs. 

Open access refund policy (APC/CPC/BPC)

Prior to publication, a refund may be awarded in the following circumstances: If there is a reason the article can’t be published; for example, on the advice of our legal team, we may decline the article and refund the APC.

Platinum open access

We publish platinum, also referred to as sponsored, open access journals in partnership with organizations such as universities and associations. There are no processing charges associated with these.

Sponsored journals

International Journal of Alternative Fuels and Energy

International Journal of Nanotechnology and Allied Sciences

International Journal of Molecular Microbiology


PSM New Medicine Journal

COVID-19: What to know about it?

The coronavirus, or COVID-19, is inciting panic for a number of reasons. It’s a new virus, meaning no one has immunity, and there is no vaccine.

Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses in the order of Nidovirale. The virions have a crown-like appearance under the electron microscope, which is why the viruses are named after the Latin word corona, meaning ‘crown’ or ‘halo’. Coronaviruses were identified in the mid-1960s and are known to infect humans and a variety of animals (including birds and mammals). Epithelial cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract are the primary target cells. Due to these characteristics, viral shedding occurs via these systems and transmission can occur through different routes: fomites, airborne or faecal-oral.

To date, seven coronaviruses have been shown to infect humans.

In late 2019, a novel coronavirus related to a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China (SARS-CoV-2) was identified. The SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to SARS-CoV and genetically clusters within Betacoronavirus subgenus Sarbecovirus.

How do I get Covid-19?

There are a lot of acronyms floating around, so first, just know that the SARS-CoV-2 virus (the coronavirus) causes the disease Covid-19. The virus is most commonly spread by close contact with infected people who are within 6 feet of each other. When they cough or sneeze, they send droplets into the air, where they can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby, or possibly get inhaled into the lungs. Droplets containing the virus can also land on surfaces and objects where the virus can survive for some time.

The transmission can be prevented. Good personal hygiene and social distancing can be very effective. Washing your hands frequently and carefully for at least 20 seconds is better than using hand sanitizer because it actually destroys the chemical structure of the virus. Any old soap will break the virus’s outer coating, and you don’t need special antibacterial soap. If soap and water aren’t available, use hand sanitizer with 60 percent alcohol.

Avoid handshakes or hugs with people who’ve been out and about, and whenever possible, stay at least 6 feet away from others. This includes minimizing or avoiding play dates, sleepovers, shared meals, going out to eat, and visits to friends’ and family members’ homes.

What are the symptoms of Covid-19?

The most common symptoms of Covid-19 are a fever, seen in almost 90 percent of patients, as well as a dry cough and shortness of breath. The incubation period before symptoms appear ranges from one to 14 days, but the median is 5.1 days. If you’ve been around someone who has a confirmed diagnosis of Covid-19 or displays its symptoms, the most responsible thing to do is to self-quarantine for two weeks.

Do I really need to worry about getting sick or spreading the virus to others?

Yes. Because social distancing works best if everyone practices it. No one has immunity, and everyone can get sick and spread the virus to others. Without protective measures, one person on average infects 2.5 others, and cases will spread exponentially. That means hospitals and medical staff will quickly become overwhelmed. At least 5 percent of Covid-19 patients may need intensive care, and many require hospitalization for weeks.

What should I do?

If you have one or more symptoms of the new coronavirus, call your doctor. If you are older or have underlying medical conditions, it’s even more important to call your doctor, even if you have only mild symptoms. Many health care facilities are requesting that you wear a mask if you have symptoms and are going in for testing. Your doctor will determine whether you should be tested.

The CDC recommends several measures to help prevent the spread of Covid-19:

Wash your hands often for at least 20 seconds.

Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw it in the trash.

Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects.

Stay home as much as possible, and do not go out if you are sick.

Wear at least a cloth mask in certain public settings.

Contact a health worker if you have symptoms.

Click here to get the latest news and updates about COVID-19.

Index Copernicus Value (ICV) for 2018: PSM Journals

We are pleased to announce that Index Copernicus (a leading indexing organization from Poland) recently indexed following PSM journals for IC Journal Master List.

PSM Biological Research : ICV 2018 = 74.08

Click here to browse Index Copernicus Value (ICV) for 2018   

PSM Veterinary Research : ICV 2018 = 72.51   

Click here to browse Index Copernicus Value (ICV) for 2018

PSM Microbiology : ICV 2018 = 74.91     

Click here to browse Index Copernicus Value (ICV) for 2018

Index Copernicus International is an international, specialized platform for promoting scientific achievements, as well as supporting national and international collaboration between scientists, publishers of scientific journals and scientific entities. The journals registered in this database underwent rigorous, multidimensional parameterization, proving high quality.We congratulate all peer reviewers and editors for this success.We are extremely thankful to our peer reviewers and editors for their kind contributions to the success of the journals.

Morphological Characters of Flower

Describe the purpose of a flower, identify the four floral whorls and describe their function in individual flowers.


The angiosperms (Phylum Anthophyta) are unique from the rest of the plant phyla in that they produce flowers and fruits as part of their sexual reproduction. Since plants are not mobile, they are not able to travel in order to seek mates, copulate, and disseminate their offspring. As a result, plants have evolved a number of novel strategies in order to accomplish these tasks. Flowers are modified in a variety of ways in order to facilitate pollination and seed dispersal, both by biotic and abiotic means.

The flower is the main distinguishing characteristic of the flowering plants (angiosperms). Although flowers come in various shapes, sizes and colours, they are all based on the same plan. The variation we observe reflects the many ways by which reproduction is accomplished.

A flower is a specialized reproductive shoot consisting of an axis bearing a maximum of four sets of ‘appendages’: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. These appendages are actually modified leaves (the flower is a modified branch). If all four sets of appendages are present, the two outer sets are sterile.



A “flower” is really nothing more than a shoot (stem and leaves) modified for reproduction. Flowers can arise singly or in clusters called inflorescences. A stem-like structure called a peduncle supports an inflorescence or a solitary flower. Pedicels are the structures which support individual flowers of an inflorescence. The end of the peduncle is often expanded to form a receptacle to which the actual floral parts attach. Flowers can have up to 4 whorls of flower parts. Working from the outside to the inside, the parts that make up those whorls include:


1) Sepals

The outermost ones are the sepals. These are often greenish, and leaflike. In the bud they cover and protect the other flower parts. The sepals protect the flower during the bud stage. Some sepals are modified to look nearly identical to the petals, but they are always located to the outside of the actual petals. The collective whorl of sepals is referred to as a calyx.


2) Petals

The petals are found to the inside of the calyx and are often pigmented and showy in order to visually attract pollinators. Petals may be separate or fused; together, they are collectively referred to as a corolla.


3) Stamens

The stamens consist of a stalk-like filament supporting a pollen-producing anther. The collective arrangement of stamens represents the male part of the plant and is referred to as the androecium (“house of men”).

Global Warming threat by livestock and its control

We live in a greenhouse

Life on Earth depends on energy coming from the sun. About half the light reaching Earth’s atmosphere passes through the air and clouds to the surface, where it is absorbed and then radiated upward in the form of infrared heat. About 90 percent of this heat is then absorbed by the greenhouse gases and radiated back toward the surface, which is warmed to a life-supporting average of 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees Celsius).

Is the sun to blame?

How do we know that changes in the sun aren’t to blame for current global warming trends?

Since 1978, a series of satellite instruments have measured the energy output of the sun directly. The satellite data show a very slight drop in solar irradiance (which is a measure of the amount of energy the sun gives off) over this time period. So the sun doesn’t appear to be responsible for the warming trend observed over the past 30 years. Longer-term estimates of solar irradiance have been made using sunspot records and other so-called “proxy indicators,” such as the amount of carbon in tree rings. The most recent analyses of these proxies indicate that solar irradiance changes cannot plausibly account for more than 10 percent of the 20th century’s warming.

Global warming and livestock – An Introduction.

Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and contributes 16% of the total greenhouse gas emissions globally due to human activities. The global warming potential of methane is 21times more than carbon dioxide. Methane production from ruminants has been considered as the single largest source of anthropogenic CH4 behind the rice fields. Livestock release methane as part of their natural digestive processes. The rumen serves as the habitat of billions of microbes, including bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi which breakdown feed to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs), carbon dioxide, ammonia, and methane. The VFAs are utilized by animals as energy source whereas gases are emitted by eructation through the mouth and also from the rectum . Cattle can produce 250–500 liter of methane per day per animal and generally lose 2–15% of their ingested energy as eructated methane. When these methane emissions are applied to the number of cattle in the world the total emissions from cattle is equivalent to about 15% of global methane emissions and about 100 million tons of methane is produced in a year .so a good way to reduce the global methane emissions is to decrease the emissions from cattle and particularly from cows. Nevertheless, controlling methane losses from ruminants has environmental as well as economic benefits. Less methane means a lower concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Also, less methane means increased efficiency of livestock production and increased income for farmers. A greater amount of methane production can be controlled by modifying the composition of the animal feed. Changing the feed composition, either to reduce the protein percentage which is converted into methane or to enhance the meat and milk yield has been considered as the most efficient methane reduction strategy. Enhancement in the overall quality of animal feed may prove helpful in maintaining meat and dairy production at the same level with fewer animals and so less total methane emission.

Methane is released into the atmosphere both by natural (for example wetlands) and anthropogenic sources (rice fields, biomass, ruminants, etc). Mitigating methane (CH4) losses from ruminants is generally required to minimize global greenhouse gas emissions and to enhance animal performance by improving feed conversion efficiency. The contribution to the methane emission of monogastric animals such as pigs, poultry, rabbits, etc., is very low compared with the ruminant contribution. So it is important to study and try to decrease the emissions from cattle because ruminant livestock can produce between 250 and 500 L of methane per day.

Energy losses and methane production in the digestive tract of ruminants:

The synthesis of the methane in ruminants reflects energy lost and it is due to the reduction of the carbon dioxide by methanogenic bacteria. After the feed is digested in the rumen, some of the energy is lost in the form of heat or methane, giving a production of methane-utilizing between 11 and 13% of the digestible energy

Dietary manipulation

Roughages (Forage type and quality):

The composition and quality of forage along with the level of intake significantly influences the rumen fermentation. Ruminants fed low-quality roughages could release a large amount of methane. Feeding crop residues to ruminants is a common practice in many Asian countries due to which methane emission from ruminants especially cattle is significant. 15% reduction in methane production by increasing the digestibility of forages and 7% by increasing feed intake. Grinding and pelleting operations of roughages decrease methane production by improving passage rate and reducing the time of feed. The shifting of animals from low to high digestible pasture significantly reduced methane production per gram of live weight gain. The use of forages meant for improving animal performance can reduce methane emissions per unit of feed intake. Importantly, pasture improvement can be a good choice if fewer animals are used


The methane production differs depending on the different types of carbohydrates that are fermented. The fermentation of cell wall fiber will lead to the production of a higher proportion of acetic acid in the rumen. As a contrast, starch fermentation gives a higher proportion of propionic acid due to the lowered pH in the rumen which causes changes in the ruminal micro-flora by an increase of amylolytic microbes and decrease of cellulolytic microbes.

The end products of the fermentation the Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) are mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate, we can also find valerate, isovalerate, isobutyrate, and caproate but in very low proportions.  They are also the main source of energy for the ruminants, and this energy is used by the lactating cow to produce milk and body fat, but not all VFA have the same degree of efficiency. The propionic acid fermentation is more efficient in the use of the energy than acetic and butyric acids that have a large loss of methane. The type of VFA produced by the animal influences the release of methane and hydrogen, increasing the release of methane when the relation of ruminal VFA [acetic acid+butyric acid]/propionic acid increases there is a negative correlation between the proportion of concentrate and methanogenesis. A significant reduction in methane production was reported in young bulls fed with the diet containing more than 40% starch. A diet comprising 45% starch decreased methane production by 56% compared to diets containing 30% starch without affecting animal health.

Inclusion of starch in the diet has a significant impact on changing ruminal pH and microbial populations.

As concentrate contains more soluble substances, the addition of concentrate in animal diet changes the composition of

partial short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) from higher to lower acetate production and more propionate. Similarly, milk quality is negatively affected if concentrates exceed 50% which limits the use of concentrates to lower methane emissions in the dairy sector.

Cereal grains with a high proportion of starchy endosperms like wheat, barley or oats have an easier and faster fermentation giving less methane than those that have a lower proportion like maize, and sorghum.


Lipids and lipid-rich feeds are among the most efficient and emerging options for methane mitigation. Lipid inclusion in the diet reduces methane emissions by decreasing fermentation. Saturated medium chain fatty acids, C10-C14, also lead to methane reduction. At ruminaL temperature, an increasing chain length of medium chain fatty acids seems to reduce their efficiency in inhibiting methanogens and methane formation due to lower solubility reviewed the practical application of lipids to reduce methanogenesis. Oil supplementation to diet decreased methane emission by up to 80% in vitro and about 25% in vivo. The toxic effects of certain oils on rumen protozoa contributed to reduced methane production. The addition of canola oil at 0%, 3.5% or 7% to the diets of sheep reduced the number of rumen protozoa by 88–97%. The detrimental impact of unsaturated fatty acids has also been reported. Coconut oil as a more effective inhibitor followed by rapeseed, sunflower seed, and linseed oil.

The inclusion of sunflower oil to the diet of cattle resulted in 22% decrease of methane

emission. However, fats and oils may pose numerous negative impacts to the animals. Dietary oil supplementation caused lower fiber digestibility. High cost and the negative impact on milk fat concentration are some of the limitations of oil supplementation.

Miscellaneous activities to reduce methane emission:

Increased milk yield:

The milk yield also influences the production of methane, when milk yield increases, the methane per kilo milk decreases. This is logical and can be explained by the fact that the energy needed for maintenance is considered approximately the same for the animal irrespective of production level. The methane production that originates from maintenance needs is therefore also estimated to be the same for an individual animal of a specific weight. When the milk yield increases, the DMI also increases but not in the same proportion. With the increased milk yield, there is more milk to carry the “burden” of maintenance needs and methane per kg milk will decrease. Thus, with increased milk yield the methane produced in absolute terms will increase somewhat but the methane per kg milk will decrease.

Using of feed additives:

Some additives like ionophores and particularly monensin have been studied. Monensin is a broad spectrum antibiotic obtained from the actinomycete Streotomyces cinnamonensis used in some countries. It is not allowed in the European Union but it is used in the United States. Its main action is to change the fermentation from acetate to propionate which leads to the decrease of methane production. However, the widespread use of antibiotics can lead to future problems with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and the environmental and economic advantages of using antibiotics to decrease methane production must be weighed against the negative health effects of increased resistance.

Feed intake level:

The level of intake can also affect methane production when an animal increases its intake, the percentage of gross energy lost in the form of methane decreases

The role of human activity

In its Fourth Assessment Report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a group of 1,300 independent scientific experts from countries all over the world under the auspices of the United Nations, concluded there’s a more than 90 percent probability that human activities over the past 250 years have warmed our planet.

The industrial activities that our modern civilization depends upon have raised atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 280 parts per million to 400 parts per million in the last 150 years. The panel also concluded there’s a better than 90 percent probability that human-produced greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide have caused much of the observed increase in Earth’s temperatures over the past 50 years.

They said the rate of increase in global warming due to these gases is very likely to be unprecedented within the past 10,000 years or more.

Authors: Naila Riaz, Maryam Saleem and Hafiz Hasnain Ayoub

DVM Scholars, The Islamia university of Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

Ebola Virus: A real threat

Ebola virus disease as “one of the world’s most virulent diseases” and it is also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever in the past. EVD outbreak has shown to have a very high-fat fatality rate ranging from 50-90%  with the reported occurrence primarily seen near the tropical rainforest of the remote village in Central & West Africa.


Group : Group V(-)ssRNA

Order : Mononegavirate

Family : Filoviridae

Genus : Ebolavirus

Species : Zaire ebolavirus

Ebola virus (EBOV formerly designed Zaire ebolavirus)  is one of five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus. Ebola virus diseases  (EVD) first appeared in 1976. In 2 simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan & the other in Yambukku, Democratic Republic Congo. There are five species that have been identified – Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston & Tai Forest. The five three Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus, & Sudan ebolavirus have been associated with large in Africa. the virus causing the 2014 West African outbreaks belongs to the Zaire species VHF may be caused by five distinct families of RNA virus. The families Arenaviridae, Filoviridae,  Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae & Rhabdoviridae, ranging from non-severe illnesses like Lassa fever, Rift valley fever. yellow & Dengue fever to more severe life fever threatening ones like Ebola virus diseases, Marburg hemorrhagic fever. Severe forms are often characterized b extreme systematic manifestations such as widespread vascular damage resulting in extensive hemorrhagic and multiple organ failure. The natural reservoir fruits bats & it is primarily transmitted between human & from animals to humans through body fluids.

The Ebola genome is a single-stranded RNA approximately 19000 nucleotides long. It encodes seven structural protein: nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase cofactor (VP35). (VP40), GP, transcription activator (VP30), (VP24) & RNA-dependent, RNA polymerase.


There’s no cure for Ebola, though.  There’s no cure for Ebola, though researchers are working on it. Treatment includes an experimental serum that destroys infected cells. Symptoms of Ebola and complications are treated as they appear. The following basic interventions, when used early, can significantly improve the chances of survival:

  1. Providing intravenous fluids (IV) and balancing electrolytes (body salts).
  2. Maintaining oxygen status and blood pressure

Treating other infections if they occur. To date, there is no form of treatment, cure, or vaccine commercially available for Ebolavirus infection. Carette et al. 2011 proposed a means for the development of potential anti-filovirus pharmaceuticals by inhibiting the NPC1 cholesterol transporter. This has been demonstrated to inhibit EBOV infection in mice, but would block the cholesterol transport pathway; therefore, this form of treatment has not yet been found to be a cure. Patients with Ebola virus disease should receive care in designated treatment centers and by clinicians trained to care for such patients. Treating patients with Ebola requires a multidisciplinary approach. So, here is some medicine which helps to control pain:

  1. Antipyretic agents (eg, acetaminophen, paracetamol) to decrease fever associated with Ebola virus disease. A dose reduction of these agents may be needed for patients with progressive hepatic dysfunction. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are generally avoided to help minimize the risk of renal failure, which can contribute to fatal disease.
  2. Analgesic agents to manage pain (eg, abdominal, joint, muscle).
  3. Antiemetic medications to control nausea and vomiting.

Anti-motility agents (eg, loperamide) to control diarrhea, and decrease fluid and electrolyte losses.


 The virus enters the body via cuts or the through exposed mucous membranes like the eyes. Symptoms usually occur 2-21 days later. The infectious period occurs with the symptoms, which are fever, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, nausea, diarrhea, rash, kidney & liver problems. The final stages involve external bleeding such as from the gums & in the stools. The virus can also remain in semen for 7 weeks after recovery from infection, it can spread via breast milk & through contact with an infected decreased individual.

Ebola is a rare but deadly virus that causes bleeding inside and outside the body.

As the virus spreads through the body, it damages the immune system and organs. Ultimately, it causes levels of blood-clotting cells to drop. This leads to severe, uncontrollable bleeding. The disease, also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever or Ebola virus, kills up to 90% of people who are infected.

Virus transmission

It is not entirely known how Ebola spreads in humans, but contact with body fluids of infected humans or animals is primarily responsible for the virus outbreak. Fruit bats are the natural reservoirs of the virus.

Ebola virus transmission from fruit bats to humans. The virus is transmitted by contact with contaminated body fluids.


Avoid Ebola Virus

There’s no vaccine to prevent or avoid Ebola virus. To avoid the Ebola virus we have to take care of prevention. The things are:

  1. Avoid direct contact with blood, saliva, vomit, urine and other bodily fluids of people with EVD or unknown illness.
  2. Avoid close contact with wild animals and avoid handling wild meat.
  3. Health care workers can prevent infection by wearing masks, gloves, and goggles whenever they come into contact with people who may have Ebola.


Pharmacists and microbiologist can play a large role in the management of the Ebola virus by educating and reassuring the public, particularly those traveling to endemic areas. As healthcare professionals, pharmacists are suitably placed to advise the general public on what measures can be taken to minimize the risk of infection, what symptoms to watch out for, and how to seek medical advice if contact is made with the Ebola virus.

Author: Terisa